Course Duration: - 1.5 Months (1hrs)
Weekdays: - 1hrs/6days, Fastrack: - 2hrs/day, Weekends: - 4hrs (Sat & Sun)


SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is a domain specific language that is used for data storage and maintenance. In this training, students learn how to optimize the accessibility and maintenance of data with the help of SQL programming.

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Course content

An Overview

  • The Role of the Database Server
  • Interacting with a Database Server: The Client
  • SQL: Its Role and Purpose
  • Using an Integrated development Environment (IDE)
  • Databases, Schemas, Tables, Rows and Columns

Introducing SQL

  • Creating and Editing SQL
  • About Statements, Batches and Scripts
  • Executing and Parsing SQL Scripts
  • Using Comments
  • SQL Syntax and The Rules of SQL
  • About Keywords, Identifiers, Operators, Whitespace and Case
  • About the Semi Colon
  • SQL Conventions and Good Practice
  • Working to Minimise, Trap and Find Errors

Retrieving Data with SQL: First Steps

  • Introducing Queries: The SELECT Statement
  • The Clauses of the SELECT Statement
  • About Optional Clauses and Mandatory Clauses
  • Using FROM to Specify the Source Table(s)
  • Retrieving Entire Tables
  • Retrieving Specific Columns
  • The Importance of Clause Order
  • How to Build Successful Queries
  • Types of Output: About the Result Set
  • Using Column Aliases to Rename Columns
  • Performing Calculations
  • Using Numeric and String Operators to Create Derived Output
  • Ways of Limiting the Output
  • Using ORDER BY to Sort the Output
  • Ways of Working: Some Tips

Using WHERE to Filter Results

  • Working with Comparison Operators (=, >= etc)
  • Numeric and String Based Filtering
  • Filtering Based on Calculations
  • Eliminating Duplicate Results with DISTINCT
  • The Execution Order and its Traps
  • Column Aliases: Where You Can and Cannot Use Them
  • Extending Filters with AND and OR
  • Solving AND/OR Difficulties with Brackets
  • Excluding Results with NOT: Some Tips
  • Range Filtering using BETWEEN and IN
  • NULL and its Implications Explained
  • Catering for NULL
  • Matching Patterns with LIKE

Joining: Getting Results from Multiple Tables

  • Qualifying Column Names
  • Joins Explained
  • The Different Types of Joins
  • Mastering the Inner Join: WHERE Syntax
  • Mastering the Inner Join: INNER JOIN Syntax
  • Table Aliases: Why We Need Them
  • Joining Two Tables
  • Joining Multiple tables
  • How to Simplify Joins: An Approach

Getting Confident with SQL Joins

  • The Importance of the Database Diagram
  • What if there is No Database Diagram?
  • Primary Keys and Foreign Keys Explained
  • Locating Primary Keys and Foreign Keys
  • Do we Need Primary Keys and Foreign Keys?
  • Approaching Joins the Right Way
  • Avoiding Common Join Errors

Using Standard SQL Functions

  • How to Use Standard SQL Functions to Modify Results
  • How to Find the Right Function
  • Mathematical, String and Conversion Functions
  • Functions for Modifying and Calculating Dates
  • Formatting Numbers to Two Decimal Places
  • Replacing NULL with a Specific Value
  • Using Standard Functions in WHERE
  • Using CASE to Specify Output Conditions

Working with Dates

  • Understanding How Dates are Stored
  • Introducing Date Functions
  • Converting Text Dates To Date Format
  • Establishing Today's Date
  • Extracting Parts of a Date (Day, Month, Year)
  • Displaying Dates in Specific Date Formats
  • Filtering with Dates

Grouping and Summarizing Results

  • The difference Between Tabular and Scalar Results
  • Using Aggregate Functions (MAX(), SUM(), AVG(), COUNT() etc)
  • The Way Aggregate Functions Work
  • Where to Use and Where Not to Use Aggregate Functions
  • Using GROUP BY to Group Results
  • Get GROUP BY Right Every Time!
  • The Need for HAVING: Filtering the Result Table

Inserting, Updating and Deleting Data

  • Inserting Single Rows
  • Inserting Multiple Rows
  • Inserting Rows by Column Position
  • Inserting Rows by Column Name
  • Dealing with Auto-Incrementing Values
  • Dealing with Nulls when Inserting
  • Inserting Data from one Table into Another
  • Updating Data
  • Deleting Data